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詩中「詩」 : <<全唐詩>>中論詩詞彙之考察

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本書受觀念史、概念史研究範式的啟發,以詞彙為考察中心,結合認知語言學、認知隱喻學、廣義修辭學等方法,從《全唐詩》中的論詩詞彙考察唐代的詩歌思想與觀念,包含詩與經驗現實關係、詩與景的關係、唐人觀念中的「詩人」等,旁及唐詩創作主體的人生觀、世界觀,以及時代價值觀與文化心態等變化,並嘗試提出以「詞彙認知」作為「唐詩詮釋」與「詩學觀念」研究新路徑的可能。自二十世紀「語言論轉向」之後,從語言的角度來研究思想和思維,盛行於各個領域,關鍵詞範式成了研究熱點。「山水」、「風景」等議題也是當代跨文化、跨界域的重要研究議題之一。本書的研究結果是對前述議題的回應與參與,而從詩語變化與新詩語現象所發現的文化轉型跡象,也回應了唐宋變革的學界議題。摘要關於詩歌觀念的考察,本文從傳統「論詩詩」研究的角度,轉而採「論詩詞彙」的視野,既是研究材料、範圍的擴大,亦是方法論上的差異。全文以詞彙為考察中心,結合認知語言學、認知隱喻學、廣義修辭學等方法,直接從詞彙中考察詩歌思想與觀念。全文共由五章組成,各章要點歸結如下:第一章緒論說明以唐代為研究對象的原因,回顧相關研究成果,並揭示以「詞彙」切入詩歌觀念的考察角度。第二章「詩與經驗現實:隱喻的視野」是從隱喻的角度來考察「詩與經驗現實」的關係。針對唐詩中許多指稱詩歌創作行為或過程的隱喻詞彙,如「得句」、「冥搜」、「尋詩」、「搜覓」、「拾句」等「搜覓系列隱喻」;「入詩」、「詩中」、「詩外」、「搜羅」「吟盡」等容器隱喻;以及將詩歌創作類比為造化生育萬物的「造化相關隱喻」等現象,探討在當時人們的觀念中:詩是如何產生的?詩人如何看待詩歌創作的行為?他們是如何隱喻式地理解詩歌與經驗現實、外在世界的關係。第三章「詩與經驗現實:觀看的視野」同樣聚焦於詞彙現象,探討詩歌作為觀看行為的可能性機制,在詩歌「視框」篩選機制的作用下,不但形成一種詩學觀物方式,且視覺對象被話語主體以不同的修辭表述,並生成一系列的風景語彙系統,形成一套風景話語,表現了人與自然的新關係。當詩歌成為一種觀物的框架,世界被視為「詩歌」來觀看(閱讀),話語主體對於入眼之自然景色,也亟欲以詩的形式來把握、占有它。而「吟看」系列詞群的出現揭示了潛隱在語言背後的觀察方式,顯示話語主體意識到詩歌創作改變了他們的視覺經驗。此外唐代詩人常常以競爭的意識在看待自然景色,亟欲在詩(藝術)與景(真實)之間一較優劣、競短爭長,詩歌往往成為風景的評價標準,風景也常成為衡量詩才的尺度。第四章「製造『詩人』」探討:唐人觀念中的「詩人」,這是透過詩歌話語呈現出來的「詩人」,或可稱之為一種關於「詩人」的「話語」。本章參酌史學家Peter Burke《製造路易十四》一書中「傳媒製造形象」的角度,以及Goffman以「表演」來探討自我概念等視角,來審視唐代對於「詩人」的集體想像與塑造。「詩人」身份不是自然而然存在的,唐代的創作者透過稱謂的使用、形象的塑造、姿態的展演、創作情懷的描述、對詩歌態度與價值的宣稱等,「詩人」從各個層面被論述性地生產出來,成為文化意義系統的一部份。第五章除了全文要點歸結外,主要簡述本文以「詞彙」為考察中心的發現與貢獻,並提出以「詞彙認知」作為「唐詩詮釋」與「詩學觀念」研究新路徑的可能。AbstractThis dissertation take the perspective of “poetry vocabulary”, and try to research the poetic idea, which different from the research of “Poems on Poetry” such as traditional research method. The research perspective of “poetry vocabulary” is not only to expand the range of the study, as well as difference in methodology. This dissertation take the view of “Key words” paradigm, in combination with other methods such as Cognitive Linguistics, Cognitive Metaphor and Rhetoric in a broad sense, and try to research poetry ideas and concepts from the vocabulary. This thesis consists of six chapters, each chapter are summarized as follows:The first chapter explains the reason for the study of Tang Dynasty, and explain how to research poetry ideas and concepts from the vocabulary.The second chapter “Poetry and empirical reality: Metaphor Perspective” is from the perspective of metaphor to examine the relationship between “poetry and empirical reality”. Thia chapter focus on the metaphorical vocabulary about poetry writing, through which we can realize people's idea of poetry such as “Poetry is how to produce”, “How poet look at the behavior of poetry writing?” etc.The third chapter “Poetry and empirical reality: Viewing Perspective” also focus on the vocabulary and try to analyze poetry as a possible mechanism of viewing behavior. Under the influence of Poetry as a selection mechanism, a poetic view way of things is formed, and vision objects are formed as a series of rhetoric vocabulary group, thereby a series of landscape discourse is formed. The landscape discourse shows the new relationship between people and Nature.The fourth chapter “The making of the ‘poet’” study the concept of poet in the Tang Dynasty, which is presented through poetic discourse. In this chapter, Peter Burke’s “The fabrication of Louis XIV” and Goffman’s “The presentation of self in everyday life” are referenced to study the “Poet discourse” In the Tang Dynasty.The last chapter briefly generalize the contribution of this dissertation, and propose a new perspective as the possibility of poetry research method, which research poetry ideas and concepts from the vocabulary.

吳品萫國立臺灣大學中國文學系博士,研究領域以唐代詩歌為主,亦關注古典詩詞領域。

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